Magazine Volume 1 Issue 1

Power Quality: Interactions Between Distributed Energy Resources, the Grid, and Other Customers

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Math H.J. Bollen, Mats Häger

This paper presents the three aspects of power quality concerning distributed energy resources (DER). The voltage quality experienced by a DER unit impacts the performance of the unit: bad voltage quality may reduce the life length of the unit and lead to incorrect operation or tripping.

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Successful Power Quality Monitoring

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Andreas Sumper, Antoni Sudriŕ Andreu, Joan Rull Duran

Monitoring power quality often seems the solution for power quality problems. However, in order to solve power quality problems something more than simple installation of power quality monitors at the site is needed. This article attempts to dissipate any doubts of engineers about organizing a monitor program to solve power quality problems. It can be organized in three programs: an overall power quality program, the power quality survey and the immunization program. In all three programs, monitoring plays a decisive role. Furthermore, an overview of the main monitor features will be given.

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The Transition of the Grid - it's all in the mix

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Davy W. Thielens, Peter T.M. Vaessen

If one thing can be said about the energy market, it is that ‘times are changing’. Our present day grid, with its historically defined structure, will also have to change to cope with the new demands of the future. As will be discussed later on, this transformation can head in different directions. Transition is no longer a mere buzzword, but a vital process that needs closely monitored to ensure that it effected as quickly and economically as possible, that it remains under our control, and that it does actually take us towards our long-term goal of realizing the sustainable supply of energy.

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An Advanced Approach to Process Hardening

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Chuck C. Thomas, Bill Howe, Mark W. Stephens, Math H.J. Bollen

Process hardening offers the prospect of solving vexing power quality problems without incurring prohibitive costs and making a huge capital investment. The technique presented in this paper focuses on identifying the specific types of PQ issues that a facility's process is experiencing, identifying the specific elements within the process that are susceptible, and then surgically dealing with those elements either by replacing them with more robust alternatives, or by some how isolating them from the vagaries of the grid.

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Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy into Power Systems

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Carlos Veganzones, Sergio Martinez, Francisco Blázquez

Wind generation peculiarities introduce new uncertainty factors in the operation of electric power systems. This paper tries to clarify this situation, remarking the main effects involved, reviewing the current state of wind generation technologies, and analyzing the solutions that can be applied. It is shown how the capabilities of most current technologies of variable speed wind turbine generation systems can make compatible a suitable operation of the power system with a high level of wind generation penetration.

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Distributed Generation in Future Grids: Will 'Energy Islands' Become a Reality?

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Johan Driesen, Ronnie Belmans

In modern distribution grids, more distributed generation technologies emerge. The most far-going implementations are ‘energy islands’ with a high degree of autonomy from the central grid. This paper considers different technological barriers that emerge with increasing penetration of such systems: power quality, control problems, safety issues, environmental aspects, the availability of primary energy resources and economic aspects.

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Total Cost of Ownership for Real World Power Protection Infrastructure Comparing Centralized vs. Distributed Power Systems

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Jean-François Christin

UPS manufacturers follow the IT culture, used to deal with modular and versatile equipment. A question then arises : should the power protection be distributed (installed in the rack) or centralized (in an electrical room). A centralized system is faster to implement. It requires a cheaper and smaller area per kW. Rightsizing centralized power from the beginning facilitates "plug-and-play" IT installations. The efficiency is better optimized, centralized UPS having lower losses cooled by cheaper air-conditionning. A centralized UPS provides better reliability and cost / MTBF ratio : a four 25 Watts light bulbs will cost more compared to one 100 Watt light bulb.

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Power Quality Regulation in Norway

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Kjell Sand, Helge Seljeseth, Knut Samdal

A new Power Quality Directive (PQD) developed by the Norwegian regulator was put into force January 1st 2005. The main purpose of the PQD is to ensure a satisfactory quality of supply in the Norwegian power system and contribute to a socio-economic rational operation, expansion and development of the power system, taking into account public and private interests that are affected. The regulations apply to those who wholly or partially own, operate or use electrical installations or electrical equipments that are connected to the Norwegian power system, and those who are designated as the transmission system operator.

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